Honey and Mumford Learning Styles
According to this model (Honey, 1982) the following four learning styles are very important to understanding the types of learners:
1. Activist: It is a style of learning whereby the learner is eager to try out new ideas. This style is a very effective way of learning as the learner tackles the problem hands on and then applies the results to the task at hand. The learner always experiments with new opportunities and problems to learn effectively. Such learners tend to work in a group and try to role-play to accomplish a task. They cannot learn effectively by merely listening to lectures or detailed explanations. Activists have difficulty in following lengthy oral instructions.
2. Reflectors: Reflectors view learning differently. They research observe groups or individuals and reflect on what they have actually learned from the observations. Such learners do not care too much about tight deadlines. They examine situations first before producing any viable or workable results. One of the disadvantages of this style of learning is that such learners cannot assume a leadership role. If they are pushed to the limit, learning will not occur.
3. Theorists: Theorists learn by assimilating their own observation into sound and logically acceptable theories. They learn and solve a given problem through logical reasoning. Theorists learn step by step. This category of learners works their way into a logical and rational time-frame. They learn best in situations in which they are challenged to think critically and use problem-solving techniques. Theorists love to investigate and come to a solution at their own pace through unstructured activities. Feelings and emotions have no place in the learning style of theorists. They cannot learn with other students who have different learning styles.
4. Pragmatists: Pragmatists learn through exploration and experimentation. They apply what have learnt to their daily activities. They will not learn if the situation and condition of learning require lengthy instructions. Pragmatists are interested in learning if it is relevant to their interests or needs. They learn best by experimentation and hands-on activities. They use the techniques acquired to do the job at hand. Pragmatists are time- savers and investigate concepts that can be prototyped. Pragmatists are unable to learn in a situation that does not assist them. They cannot learn if there is no clear guidance to help them with the task at hand. (Charlesworth, 2008)
Dick and Carey Model of Learning
This style of learning is greatly influenced by Robert Gagne’s conditions of learning. This model suggests the following steps of learning:
Walter Dick and Lou Carey (Dick, 1990) investigated the learning process and prototyped the learning process implemented by behaviorists and constructivists ideology.
Step 1: Identify your Goals. What do you want to achieve? What do you want your learners to achieve? Make a complete needs analysis as well as requirements.
Step 2: Make an analysis of your instruction. Define your steps in the instruction to help your learners gain the desired knowledge.
Step 3: Find out about characteristics and behaviors of your learners. Their prior knowledge, skills and preferences must be identified.
Step 4: Identify your objectives. Learners will acquire critical thinking and problem-solving skills at the end of the course.
Step 5: Measure learners’ progress and performance according to the learning objectives.
Steep 6: Identify your strategies. Assign your activities, present information in a meaningful manner, ask the learners for feedback and re-test them.
Step 7: Identify and prepare relevant learning materials such as student’s manual, tests, instructor’s guide, learning guides and computer-based multimedia learning aids
Step 8: Conduct Formative Evaluation of your instruction. To improve the instruction, the educator must evaluate every step of the instruction herself as well as get several students give her feedback regarding her performance as an instructor.
Step 9: Conduct Summative Evaluation of your instruction. This stage is very crucial as it shows the absolute worth or otherwise of the instruction.